Based on your learning about feedback, identify the three most important aspects of giving feedback to later years students.

When I was completing an assignment last year on classroom management and holistic teaching, I became fascinated with Robert Gagne’s Nine Levels of Learning model. Each step highlights a form of communication that aids the learning process. When each step is completed in turn, learners are much more likely to be engaged and to retain the information or skills that they’re being taught. From engagement comes learning, and effective learning closely links motivation and confidence to a sense of achievement or mastery. Students need tangible experience of success to know they have talent.

And perhaps the most important part of that, and Gagne’s seventh level of learning is feedback. While teachers must design learning experiences that are at an appropriate level of difficulty and challenging, they must also provide feedback to ensure successful outcomes are within the grasp of the student. (Churchill et al., 2013, p.134).

This charts inspires ways to give feedback to students. My picks for later years students are: Ask students to email or video blog feedback, Standardize and Personalize, and Search … search for flaws in the answers, search for creative answers and search between the lines.


In Lev Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, scaffolding can also take the form of set guidelines and frequent feedback. (McDevitt et al., 2013, p.226).

Tim McDonald’s Positive Learning Framework (2013) claims creating the opportunity for achievement starts with creative teaching, relevant life content, moving onto developing competence by developing responsibility and group tasks, and setting high expectations with clear goals but also teacher feedback and affirmation (p.79-80).

For me, the three most important aspects of giving feedback to later years students is that it be specific and immediate, linked to an outcome or goal, and involves the learner, it shows what the student has truly learned, it encourages active learning through discussion, interaction and give and take, and it empowers learning through positive empowerment, confidence building and a sense of achievement. As psychologist Carol Dweck ( said:

In a growth mindset, people believe that their most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work—brains and talent are just the starting point. This view creates a love of learning and a resilience that is essential for great accomplishment.





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